see also

Krenek [Krenek], Ernst

(b Vienna, 23 Aug 1900; d Palm Springs, CA, 22 Dec 1991). Austrian composer and writer, also active in Germany and the USA. One of the most prolific composers of the 20th century, he wrote in a wide variety of contemporary idioms.

Krenek began piano lessons at the age of six and was soon writing short piano pieces. In 1916 he began composition study with Schreker, whose emphasis on counterpoint prepared Krenek for Kurth's Lineare Kontrapunkte, a text that caused the young composer to conclude that 'music was not just a vague symbolization of emotion instinctively conjured up into pleasant sounding matter, but a precisely planned reflection of an autonomous system of streams of energy materialized in carefully controlled tonal patterns'. Conscripted into the Austrian Army during World War I, Krenek was posted to Vienna where he was able to continue his studies. In 1920 he followed Schreker to Berlin, where he attended the salon of Busoni, met Hermann Scherchen and befriended Eduard Erdmann and Artur Schnabel. Works from this period reflect Schreker's influence in their use of counterpoint and extended tonality.

The three years from 1921 to 1924 were musically productive for Krenek. With the performance of the First String Quartet at the 1921 Deutsches Tonkunstlerfest (Nuremberg), his mature compositional voice emerged. The stark dissonances and vigorous Bartokian rhythms of the quartet inspired more than 50 reviews, gaining Krenek a reputation that produced a contract with Universal Edition. He completed 18 works during these three years, among them the operas Die Zwingburg (1922), Orpheus und Eurydike (1923) and Der Sprung uber den Schatten (1923). Most compositions received their premieres within a year of completion. At the beginning of 1922 Krenek met Anna Mahler, the daughter of Gustav Mahler. Their relationship, providing him with an entree into the Mahler circle, resulted in Franz Werfel's reworking of the libretto of Die Zwingburg and Alma Mahler's introduction to Alban Berg. Anna also asked Krenek to complete Mahler's Tenth Symphony; he edited the first and third movements of the work, but felt the remainder to be too undeveloped to justify completion artistically. The couple's marriage in 1924 lasted less than a year.

In late 1922 Krenek was invited to join the board of the newly created ISCM. During the next three years many of his works were performed at ISCM concerts. He later served as president of the Austrian chapter of the society. After the enormous uproar created by the premiere of his Second Symphony in 1923 (Deutsches Tonkunstlerfest, Kassel), Krenek received a grant from Werner Reinhart that enabled him to live in Switzerland for a short time. Reinhart also introduced Krenek to Stravinsky and Rilke. Ordinarily opposed to musical settings of his texts, Rilke dedicated his cycle 'O Lacrymosa' to Krenek in the hope that it would be set to music, a project that was completed in 1926. In 1925 Krenek joined Paul Bekker at the Staatstheater Kassel. As assistant director Krenek composed incidental music, wrote notes for programme books and occasionally conducted.

In early 1925 Krenek travelled to Paris, where he met Les Six. Deciding that his music should become more accessible, he began sketching ideas for an opera. The completion of Jonny spielt auf (1925) marked a return to tonality and the beginning of what Krenek called his neo-Romantic period, influenced in part by his study of Schubert. The opera's premiere in early 1927 soon had Krenek riding a wave of success (see fig.2). Three one-act operas were also completed: Der Diktator (1926), loosely based on the life of Mussolini; Das geheime Konigreich (1926), a fairy tale; and Schwergewicht, oder Die Ehre der Nation (1928), a satire on sports hero-worship. After a second trip to Paris, during which he met Antheil, he settled in Vienna. He married Berta Hass [Hermann], a prominent actress, in 1928. Leben des Orest (1928--9), a grand opera, and Reisebuch aus den osterreichischen Alpen (1929), a cycle of 20 songs extolling the Austrian countryside, also date from this period.

On his return to Vienna, Krenek became good friends with Berg and Webern. Although he studied their scores, he did not discuss their music with them. He did engage in discussions with Adorno, however, with whom he had become friends in 1924. After both were appointed to the board of Anbruch in 1928, a debate between them over artistic responsibility appeared in print. Adorno argued that artists had a sociological responsibility to the conditions of the time, while Krenek maintained that artists were responsible only to a personal standard of merit. When Krenek received a commission from the Vienna Staatsoper in 1929, however, he decided to write a work based on the life of Emperor Charles V, reflecting the disintegration of society, extolling Austrian nationalism and employing the new 12-note compositional technique. A meeting with Karl Kraus in 1930 motivated two sets of songs on Kraus's texts (1931) that experiment with 12-note writing. Karl V, the first 12-note opera, was completed in 1933. Although political events cancelled its Viennese production, it was performed in Prague in 1938.

After regularly contributing to the arts page of the Frankfurter Zeitung from 1930 to 1933, Krenek could no longer write for the German press. The growing Nazi movement branded him a radical artist and banned his music and writings. In 1932 Krenek, Berg, Rudolph Ploderer and Willi Reich founded 23 (Dreiundzwandzig), a satirical magazine they continued to publish until 1937. In 1936 Krenek was also asked to prepare an edition of Monteverdi's L'incoronazione di Poppea for the Salzburg Opera Guild's American tour. He travelled with the company in 1937, presenting lecture recitals and recording his impressions and experiences for the Wiener Zeitung. It was on this trip that he first visited Los Angeles and became enamoured with the American West.

Shortly after his return to Europe the Nazis annexed Austria and Krenek emigrated to America, where he became a naturalized citizen. He taught at the Malkin Conservatory, Boston (1938--9), the University of Michigan summer school (1939), where his students included George Perle and Robert Erickson, and Vassar College (1939--42). Lamentatio Jeremiae prophetae (1941--2), written after a careful study of Ockeghem editions in the Vassar library, anticipated the serial techniques of Boulez and Stockhausen. In 1942 Krenek accepted a position at Hamline University, St Paul, Minnesota, where he taught until 1947. His close friendship with Mitropoulos and Krasner led to the foundation of the Minneapolis chapter of ISCM. Compositions from the Hamline years include Cantata for Wartime (1943), the Seventh String Quartet (1943--4), Santa Fe Timetable (1945), the chamber opera What Price Confidence? (1945), Symphonic Elegy (1946), dedicated to the memory of Webern, and the Fourth Symphony (1947).

In 1947, at the encouragement of Antheil, Krenek moved to Los Angeles, where he hoped to support himself through composition. When he found this to be impossible, he taught at small schools for a number of years. In 1949 he was appointed to a position at the Chicago Musical College (1949), but left Chicago in December due to the cold weather. Determined to live in the Los Angeles area, he divorced his wife and married the composer Gladys Nordenstrom in 1950. He returned to Europe to teach at the Darmstadt summer courses in 1950 and 1951; after an absence of two years (1952--3), however, he found his influence waning in the ascent of Boulez and Stockhausen. Many of his most important works were commissioned during this period, among them the chamber operas Dark Waters (1950) and The Bell Tower (1955--6), the fifth and sixth piano sonatas (1950, 1951), Eleven Transparencies (1954), for soprano and orchestra, and Pallas Athene weint (1952--5), a parable on the downfall of democracy dedicated to Adlai Stevenson.

In 1955 Krenek was invited by Eimert to work in his electronic music studio. This experience proved pivotal to Krenek's compositional style, resulting in Spiritus intelligentiae, sanctus (1955--6), a work for two voices and tape. The electronic medium motivated Krenek to develop a serial idiom; he became interested in the dialectic of predetermination and chance, as well as in the significance of time. As the Christian Gauss lecturer at Princeton University in the spring of 1957, Krenek learnt of the medieval poetic form Sestina, which seemed compatible with his serial ideas. In his composition Sestina (1957) he combined note row rotations with the medieval form. Many works composed in the following decade continued to employ serial techniques. In 1958 a renewed friendship with Stravinsky after years of estrangement, owing to a satirical remark made by Krenek about 12-note music at the 1925 Congress for Aesthetics, created many opportunities for the discussion of 12-note and serial procedures. He returned to Princeton in 1959 to lecture at the Seminars in Advanced Musical Studies.

In 1960 Krenek received several honours including the Silver Medal of Austria, the Gold Medal of Vienna, and memberships in the Berlin Academy of Arts, the Austrian State Academy of Music, Vienna, and the National Institute of Arts and Letters, New York. He moved to Palm Springs in 1966, where he served as an adviser in the formation of the music department at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). During this time, collections of his essays and opera librettos were published. He also composed eight significant orchestral works, five major works for soprano and ensemble, two electronic works (along with several others including electronic music) and two television operas concerning chance and order (Ausgerechnet und verspielt, 1961; Der Zauberspiegel, 1963--6). He received commissions from the Hamburg State Opera for Der goldene Bock (1962--3), a work including elements of surrealism and the absurd, and Sardakai, oder Das kommt davon (1967--9), which makes use of ironic elements from the Cosi fan tutte story. His interest in serialism and time were often reflected in the titles of his instrumental music, such as Quaestio temporis (1959), From Three Make Seven (1960--61) and Instant Remembered (1967--8). Some of these works use timbres structurally, while others leave a number of parameters open to performer manipulation, or offer performers various ways to combine composed elements.

In 1970 Krenek was appointed to the post of Regent's Lecturer at UCSD. He was awarded the Cross of Austria and a Berlin Festival commission (Feiertags-Kantate) in 1975. During the last years of his life his compositional style became more relaxed, though he continued to use elements of 12-note and serial systems. Both his writings and his compositions, such as Spatlese (1972) for Fischer-Dieskau, became more introspective and biographical. The last works include the humorous television opera Flaschenpost vom Paradies (1972--3), vocal compositions such as They Knew What they Wanted (1977) and The Dissembler (1978), and three major orchestral compositions, most notably the autobiographical Arc of Life (1981). He summarized his compositional career in the Eighth String Quartet (1980--81), a work that quotes from his other quartets. The oratorio Opus sine nomine (1980--88) was his final large work. In 1982 he was appointed an honorary citizen of Vienna. He spent his remaining summers at the Arnold Schoenberg House in Modling. In 1986 the first annual Krenek Prize for composition was established in Vienna.

Krenek, Ernst


librettos by the composer unless otherwise stated
Die Zwingburg (scenic cant., 1, F. Werfel, after F. Demuth), op.14, 1922, Berlin, Staatsoper, 20 Oct 1924
Orpheus und Eurydike (3, O. Kokoschka), op.21, 1923, Kassel, Staats, 27 Nov 1926
Der Sprung über den Schatten (comic op, 3), op.17, 1923, Frankfurt, Opernhaus, 9 June 1924
Bluff (musical comedy, C. von Levetzov, after G. Gribble), op.36, 1924?5, withdrawn
Jonny spielt auf (2), op.45, 1925, Leipzig, Stadt, 10 Feb 1927
Der Diktator (tragic op, 1), op.49, 1926, Wiesbaden, Staats, 6 May 1928
Das geheime Königreich (fairy tale op, 1), op.50, 1926, Wiesbaden, Staats, 6 May 1928
Schwergewicht, oder Die Ehre der Nation (burlesque operetta, 1), op.55, 1927, Wiesbaden, Staats, 6 May 1928
Leben des Orest (grand op, 5), op.60, 1928?9, Leipzig, Neues, 19 Jan 1930
Kehraus um St Stephan (2), op.66, 1930, Vienna, Ronacher, 6 Dec 1990
Karl V (2), op.73, 1932?3, Prague, Neues Deutsches, 22 June 1938
Cefalo e Procri (It. op, 1, R. Küfferle, Ger. trans. Krenek), op.77, 1933?4, Venice, Goldoni, 15 Sept 1934
Die Krönung der Poppea (G.F. Busenello, Ger. trans. Krenek), op.80a, 1936, Vienna, Volksoper, 25 Sept 1937, orch of C. Monteverdi: L'incoronazione di Poppea
Tarquin (chbr op, 2, Eng. text by E. Lavery, Ger. text by M.-C. Schulte-Strahaus and P. Funk), op.90, 1940, Poughkeepsie, NY, Vassar College, 13 May 1941
What Price Confidence? [Vertrauenssache] (chbr op, 9 scenes), op.111, 1945, Saarbrücken, Stadt, 23 May 1962
Dark Waters [Dunkle Wasser] (1, after H. Melville: The Confidence Man), op.125, 1950, Los Angeles, U. of Southern California, 2 May 1951
Pallas Athene weint (3), op.144, 1952?5, Hamburg, Staatsoper, 17 Oct 1955
The Bell Tower [Der Glockenturm] (1, after Melville), op.153, 1955?6, Urbana, IL, U. of Illinois, 17 March 1957
Ausgerechnet und verspielt (TV op, 1), op.179, 1961, Österreichisches Fernsehen, 25 July 1962
Der goldene Bock [Chrysomallos] (4), op.179, 1962?3, Hamburg, Staatsoper, 16 June 1964
Der Zauberspiegel (TV op, 14 scenes), op.192, 1963?6, Bayerischer Fernsehen, 6 Sept 1967
Sardokai, oder Das kommt davon (Wenn Sardakai auf Reisen geht) (11 scenes), op.206, 1967?9, Hamburg, Staatsoper, 27 June 1970
Flaschenpost von Paradies, oder Der englische Ausflug (TV op), op.217, 1972?3, Österreichisches Fernsehen, 8 March 1974

other stage
Ballets: Mammon (B. Balász, Ger. trans. H. Kröller), op.37, 1925; Der vertauschte Cupido, op.38, 1925 [after J.-P. Rameau]; Eight Column Line, op.85, 1939; Jest of Cards, op.162a, 1962 [arr. from Marginal Sounds, op.162]; Alpbach Qnt (choreog. Y. Georgi), op.180a, wind qnt, perc, 1962
Incid music: Das Gotteskind, op.42 (radio), 1925; Die Rache des verhöhnten Liebhabers, op.41 (E. Toller), 1925; Vom lieben Augustin, op.40 (Dietzenschmidt), 1925; A Midsummer Nightís Dream, op.46 (W. Shakespeare), 1926; Der Triumph der Empfindsamkeit, op.43 (J.W. von Goethe), 1926; Marlborough s'en va-t-en guerre, op.52 (M. Achard), 1927; König Oedipus, op.188 (Sophocles), 1964

Syms.: no.1, op.7, 1921; no.2, op.12, 1922; no.3, op.16, 1922; Sym., op.34, wind, perc, 1924?5; Kleine Sinfonie, op.58, 1928; no.4, op.113, 1947; no.5, op.119, 1949; Sym. ëPallas Atheneí, op.137, 1954
With solo inst(s): Conc. grosso no.1, op.10, 6 insts, str, 1921 [withdrawn]; Pf Conc. no.1, F, op.18, 1923; Concertino, op.27, fl, vn, hpd/pf, str, 1924; Conc. grosso no.2, op.25, 1924; Vn Conc. no.1, op.29, 1924; Pf. Conc. no.2, op.81, 1937; Little Conc., op.88, pf, org, chbr orch, 1939?40; Pf Conc. no.3, op.107, 1946; Conc., op.124, vn, pf, chbr orch, 1950; Pf Conc. no.4, op.123, 1950; Conc., op.126, hp, chbr orch, 1951; 2 Pf Conc., op.127, 1951; Vc Conc. no.1, op.133, 1953; Vn Conc. no.2, op.140, 1953?4; Suite, op.147a, fl, str, 1954; Capriccio, op.145, vc, small orch, 1955; Suite, op.148a, cl, str, 1955; Kitharaulos, op.213, ob, hp, small orch, 1971; Conc., op.230, org, str, 1979; Org Conc., op.235, 1982; Vc Conc. no.2, op.236, 1982
Other: Symphonische Musik no.1, op.11, ww, str, 1922; Symphonische Musik no.2, op.23, chbr orch, 1923 [withdrawn]; 7 Orchesterstücke, op.31, 1924; 3 Lustige Märsche, op.44, wind, 1926; Intrada, op.51a, wind, 1927; Potpourri, op.54, 1927; Theme and 13 Variations, op.69, 1931; Adagio and Fugue, op.78a, str, 1936; Campo Marzio, op.80, ov., 1937; Sym. Piece, op.86, str, 1939; I Wonder as I Wander, op.94, 1942 [variations on North Carolina folksong]; Tricks and Trifles, op.101, 1945 [arr. of Hurricane Variations]; Sym. elegy, op.105, str, 1946; Brazilian Sinfonietta, op.131, str, 1952; Scenes from the West, op.134, school orch, 1952?3; 7 Easy Pieces, op, 146, str, 1955; Kette, Kreis und Spiegel, op.160, 1956?7; Hexaedron, op.167, chbr orch, 1958; Quaestio temporis, op.170, small orch, 1959; From Three Make Seven, op.177, 1960?61; Nach wie von der Reihe nach, op.182, 2 spkrs, orch, 1962; 6 Profiles, op.203, 1965?8; Exercises of a Late Hour, op.200, small orch, tape, 1967; Horizon Circled, op.196, 1967; Instant Remembered, S, spkr, orch, tape, 1967?8; Perspectives, op.199, 1967; Fivefold Enfoldment, op.205, 1969; Statisch und ekstatisch, op.214, 1971?2; Auf- und Ablehnung, op.220, 1974; Von vorn herein, op.219, small orch, pf, cel, 1974; Dream Sequence, op.224, wind, 1975; Im Tal der Zeit, op.232, 1979; Arc of Life, op.234, chbr orch, 1981

Mixed vv: 3 Choruses (M. Claudius), op.22, unacc. chorus, 1923; Die Jahreszeiten (F. Hölderlin), op.35, 1925; 4 Choruses (J.W. von Goethe), op.47, unacc. chorus, 1926; Kleine Kantate, op.51, 1927, lost; 3 Choruses (G. Keller), op.61, 1929; 4 Austrian Folksongs, op.77a, 1934; Symeon der Stylit (orat), 1935?7, rev. 1987; Lamentatio Jeremiae prophetae, op.93, 1941?2; Santa Fe Timetable, op.102, 1945; O Would I Were, canon, op.109, 1946; 4 Choruses, op.138, mixed vv, org, 1953; Motette zur Opferung, op.141, 3vv, 1954; Ich singe wieder wenn es tagt (W. von der Vogelweide), op.151, mixed vv, str, 1955?6; Proprium missae in domenica III in quadragesima, op.143, 3vv, 1955; Psalmenverse zur Kommunion, op.149, 2?4vv, 1955; Guten Morgen, Amerika (C. Sandburg), op.159, 1956; Missa duodecim tonorum, op.165, mixed vv, org, 1957?8; 6 Motets (F. Kafka), op.169, 4vv, 1959; 3 Madrigals, 3 Motets, op.174, childrenís vv, 1960; Canon for Stravinskyís 80th Birthday (Krenek), op.181, 2vv, 1962; O Holy Ghost (J. Donne), op.186a, 1964; Glauben und wissen, op.186a, mixed vv, orch, 1966; Deutsche Messe, op.204, mixed vv, insts, 1968; 3 Lessons (Krenek), op.210, 1971; Settings of Poems by William Blake, op.226, 1976; Opus sine nomine (orat), op.238, 1980?88; For Myself, at Eightyfive, canon, op.238a, 4vv, ?1985
Female vv: 2 Choruses on Jacobean Poems (W.H. Drummond, W. Raleigh), op.87, 1939; Proprium missae in festo SS Innocentium martyrum, op.89, 1940; Cant. for Wartime (H. Melville), op.95, female vv, orch, 1943; Aegrotarit Ezechias, motet, op.103, 1944; 5 Prayers (Donne), op.97, 1944; In paradisum, motet, op.106, 1946; Remember Now, motet, op.115a, female vv, pf, 1947
Male vv: Jagd im Winter (F. Grillparzer), op.74, male vv, hn, timp, 1933
With solo vv: 4 kleine Männerchöre (Hölderlin), op.32, A, male vv, 1924; Kantate von der Vergänglichkeit des Irdischen (P. Fleming, A. Gryphius, other 17th-century Ger., trans. Krenek), op.72, S, mixed vv, pf, 1932; Proprium missae Trinitatis, op.195, S, mixed vv, insts, 1966?7; Messe ëGib uns den Friedení, op.208, solo vv, mixed vv, insts, 1970; Feiertags-Kantate (Krenek), op.221, Mez, Bar, spkr, chorus, orch, 1974?5

solo vocal
With orch: Wechsellied zum Tanz (J.W. von Goethe), op.43a, S, orch, 1926; 4 Lieder (C. Günther, G.R. Weckherlin, P. Fleming), op.53, Mez, wind, 1927; Monolog der Stella (concert aria, Goethe), op.57a, S, orch, 1928; Durch die Nacht (song cycle, K. Kraus), op.67a, S, orch, 1930?31; Die Nachtigall (concert aria, Kraus), op.68a, coloratura S, orch, 1931; Medea (dramatic monologue, R. Jeffers, after Euripides), op.129, Mez, orch, 1951; 11 Transparencies, op.142, S, orch, 1954; The Dissembler (monologue, Krenek), op.229, Bar, chbr orch, 1978
With inst(s): Während der Trennung (P. Fleming), op.76, Mez, Bar, pf, 1933; The Holy Ghostís Ark (J. Donne), op.91a, Mez, 4 insts, 1941; La corona (Donne: 7 Sonnets), op.91, Mez, Bar, org, perc, 1941; Sestina (Krenek), op.161, S, 8 insts, 1957; 2 Zeitlieder (R. Pandula), op.215, Mez, str qt, 1972
Songs (1v, pf): 8 Lieder (G.H. Goering, F. Werfel, O. Krzyzanowski, F.G. Klopstock), op.9, 1921?2; 5 Lieder (G. Gezelle, Werfel), op.15, 1922; 5 Lieder (Krzyzanowski, Klopstock), op.19, 1923; 13 Lieder (Goering, H. Reinhart), op.30, 1924; O Lacrymosa (R.M. Rilke), op.48, 1926; 4 Lieder (17th-century Ger.), op.53, 1927, orchd 1927; 3 Lieder (Goethe), op.56, 1928; Reisebuch aus den österreichischen Alpen (Krenek), op.62, 1929; Fiedellieder (T. Storm, T. Mommsen), op.64, 1930; Gesänge des späten Jahres (Krenek), op.71, 1931; Das Schweigen (Gemminge), op.75, 1933; 5 Lieder (F. Kafka), op.82, 1937?8; The Ballad of the Railroads (Krenek), op.98, 1944; 4 Songs (G.M. Hopkins), op.112, 1946?7; 2 Sacred Songs, op.132, 1952; The Flea (Donne), op.175, 1960; Wechselrahmen (E. Barth), op.189, 1965; 3 Songs (L. von Sauter), op.216, 1972; Spätlese (Krenek), op.218, 1972; Two Silent Watchers (M. Rudulph), op.222, 1975; Albumblatt (Krenek), op.228, 1977
With tape: Spiritus intelligentiae, sanctus, op.152, 2 solo vv, tape, 1955?6; Quintina (Krenek), op.191, S, 6 insts, tape, 1965; They Knew What they Wanted (Krenek), op.227, nar, ob, pf, perc, tape, 1977
Unacc: Étude, op.104, coloratura S, A, 1945

3 or more insts: Serenade, op.4, cl, str trio, 1919; 4 str qts: no.1, op.6, 1921, no.2, op.8, 1921, no.3, op.20, 1923, no.4, op.24, 1923?4; Trio-Fantasie, op.63, pf trio, 1929; 3 str qts: no.5, op.65, 1930, no.6, op.78, 1936, no.7, op.96, 1943?4; Trio, op.108, vn, cl, pf, 1946; 5 Short Pieces, op.116; Str Qt, 1948; Str Trio, op.118, 1948?9; Parvula corona musicalis ad honorem Johannes Sebastiani Bach, op.122, str trio, 1950; Wind Qnt, op.130, 1952; Marginal Sounds, op.162, vn, pf, perc, 1957; Pentagram, op.163, wind qnt, 1957; Flötenstück neunphasig, op.171, fl, 6 pf, 1959; Hausmusik, op.172, various insts, 1959; Fibonacci mobile, op.187, str qt, pf 4 hands, 1964; Str Qt no.8, op.233, 1980?81; Streichtrio in 12 Stationen, op.235, str trio, 1985; Akrostichon, op.237a, 6 vc, 1987
1?2 insts: Sonata, f, op.3, vn, pf, 1919?20; Kleine Suite, op.28, cl, pf, 1924; Sonata, op.33, vn, 1924?5; Suite, op.84, vc, 1939; Sonata, op.92/3, va, 1942; Sonatina, op.92/2a, fl, va, 1942 [arr. op.92/2b, fl, cl, 1942]; Sonata, op.99, vn, pf, 1944?5; Sonata, op.115, vn, 1948; Sonata, op.117, va, pf, 1948; Phantasiestück, op.135, vc, pf, 1953; Suite, op.147, fl, pf, 1954; Sonata, op.150, hp, 1955; Suite, op.164, gui, 1957; Studien, op.184, vc, 1963; 4 Pieces, op.193, ob, pf, 1966; 5 Pieces, op.198, trbn, pf, 1967; Op.231, vn, org, 1979; Dyophonie, op.241, 2 vc, 1988; Op.239, hn, org, 1988; Suite, op.242, mand, gui, 1989
El-ac: San Fernando Sequence, op.185, tape, 1963; Quintona, op.190, tape, 1965; Doppelt beflügeltes Band, op.207, 2 pf, tape, 1969?70; Duo, op.209, fl, db, tape, 1970; Orga-nastro, op.212, org, tape, 1971

Pf: Double Fugue, op.1a, 1918; Sonata no.1, E, op.2, 1919; 5 Sonatinas, op.5, 1920; Tanzstudie, op.1b, 1920; Kleine Suite, op.13a, 1922; Toccata and Chaconne, op.13, 1922; 2 Suites, op.26, 1924; 5 Stücke, op.39, 1925; Sonata no.2, op.59, 1928; 4 Bagatelles, op.70, 4 hands, 1931; 12 Variations in 3 Movts, op.79, 1937; 12 Short Pieces, op.83, 1938; Sonata no.3, op.92/4, 1943; Hurricane Variations, op.100, 1944; 8 Pieces, op.110, 1946; Sonata no.4, op.114, 1948; George Washington Variations, op.120, 1950; Sonata no.5, op.121, 1950; Sonata no.6, op.128, 1951; 20 Miniatures, op.139, 1953?4; Echoes from Austria, op.166, 1958 [arr. Austrian folksongs]; 6 Vermessene, op.168, 1958; Basler Massarbeit, op.173, 2 pf, 1960; Piece, op.197, 1967; Sonata no.7, op.240, 1988
Other: Sonata, op.92/1, org, 1941; Organologia, op.180.5, org, 1962; Toccata, op.183, accdn, 1962; 10 Choral vorspiele, op.211, org, 1971; Four Winds, op.223, org, 1979; Acco-muuic, op.225, accdn, 1976

MSS in A-Wn, Wst, US-SPma, Wc, U. of California, San Diego
Principal publishers: Bärenreiter, Schott, Universal