see also

Gal [Gal], Hans

(b Brunn, nr Vienna, 5 Aug 1890; d Edinburgh, 3 Oct 1987). Austrian composer and musicologist. He studied composition with Mandyczewski and music history with Guido Adler at Vienna University, completing the doctorate in 1913 on the style of the young Beethoven. Two years later he won the newly created Austrian State Prize for composition. From 1919 until 1929 he was lecturer in music theory at the university, and the period between the end of World War I and 1933 saw his rapid rise to success as a composer, above all with his second opera Die heilige Ente, performed in some 20 theatres. After winning the Columbia Schubert centenary prize for his Sinfonietta in 1928, he was appointed director of the Mainz Conservatory (1929--33). On Hitler's accession to power in 1933 he was instantly dismissed and the performance and publication of his works were banned because he was Jewish. He returned to Austria, but was driven out by the Anschluss in 1938 and fled to England. Tovey invited him to Scotland, where he settled in 1939 and was appointed lecturer at Edinburgh University in 1945. From that time he played an active part in the musical life of the city, not only as lecturer, but also as conductor, pianist, musical personality and founder-member of the Edinburgh International Festival. He remained active as a composer but never re-established his pre-war career and relatively little of his output is known.

Of his 110 published works, more than half were composed in Scotland. His values were deeply rooted in the tonal tradition of the Austro-German musical style. Though an inheritor of the legacy of Brahms, he had by the time of his twenties found his own distinctive musical language to which, regardless of changing musical fashions, he remained true. It unites many elements: the clarity, playful humour and formal mastery of early Classicism; the chromatic harmony and extended tonality of early 20th-century, pre-serial music; a Schubertian love of melody; the lyricism and emotional restraint of Brahms and the contrapuntal textures that remained fundamental to his style. His deep insight into the life and work of great musicians is shown in his books -- on Brahms, Schubert, Wagner and Verdi.


Der Arzt der Sobeide (comic op, prol, 2, F. Zoref), op.4, 1917--18, Breslau, 1919; Die heilige Ente (ein Spiel, 3, K.M. von Levetzow and L. Feld), op.15, 1920--21, Dusseldorf, 29 April 1923; Das Lied der Nacht (dramatische Ballade, 3, von Levetzow), op.23, 1924--5, Breslau, 24 April 1926; Der Zauberspiegel (fairy play, Jaroschek), op.38, lost, Breslau, 1930; Die beiden Klaas (3, von Levetzow), op.42, 1932--3, perf. as Rich Claus, Poor Claus (trans. A. Fox), York, Rowntree, 22 May 1990

Ov. to a Puppet Play, op.20, 1923; Sym. no.1 (Sinfonietta), op.30, 1927; Ballet Suite (Scaramuccio), op.36, 1929; Vn Conc., op.39, 1932; Concertino, op.43, pf, str, 1934; Concertino, op.52, vn, str, 1939; Serenade, op.46, str, 1937; A Pickwickian Ov., op.45, 1939--44; Lilliburlero: Improvisations on a Martial Melody, op.48, c1943; Sym. no.2, op.53, 1942--3; Concertino, op.55, org, str, 1948; Pf Conc., op.57, 1948
Sym. no.3, op.62, 1951--2; Vc Conc., op.67, 1944; Meanders, suite, op.69, 1954--5; Idyllikon, op.79, suite, 1958--9; Concertino, op.87, vc, str, 1966; Triptych, op.100, 1970; Suite, op.102a/b, va/a sax, orch, 1949; Sym. no.4 (Sinfonia concertante), op.103, 1973

Von ewiger Freude (cant., 17th century), op.1, female vv, org, 2 hp, 1912; Vom Baumlein, das andere Blatter hat gewollt (F. Ruckert), op.2, A, female vv, orch, 1916; Fantasies (R. Tagore), op.5, a, female vv, chbr orch, 1919; 2 Songs, op.8, male vv, 1914; 3 Songs, op.11, male vv, pf/orch, 1910--11; 3 Songs, op.12, female vv, pf, 1910; Kinderverse (P. Dehmel), op.14, female vv, c1921; Motet (M. Claudius), op.19, 1924; Herbstlieder, op.25, female vv, 1918--25; Requiem fur Mignon (J.W. von Goethe), op.26, vv, orch, 1922
Epigramme (G.E. Lessing), op.27, 1926; 3 Songs, op.31, female vv, pf, 1928; 5 Serious Songs, op.32, male vv (1929); 3 Portratsstudien (W. Busch), op.34, male vv, pf, 1929; 3 Songs, op.37 (1932); 3 Idyllen (Busch), op.40, male vv, pf (1934); 6 Folksongs, male vv (1930); Nachtmusik (J.J.C. von Grimmelshausen), op.44, S, male vv, fl, vc, pf, 1933; Stille Lieder (Summer Idylls) (C. Flaischlen), op.47, female vv, 1935; De profundis (cant., 17th-century Ger.), op.50, solo vv, chorus, orch, 1936--7; 4 Madrigals (Elizabethan texts), op.51 (1939); 4 Partsongs, op.61, c1953
2 Songs, op.63, male vv, 1954; Lebenskreise (cant., Goethe, F. Holderlin), op.70, 4 solo vv, chorus, orch, 1955; Songs of Youth, op.75, female vv, 1959; A Clarion Call, op.76, female vv, 1959; Of a Summer Day (A. Strawbridge), op.77, female vv, str, 1952; Spattlese, op.91, male vv (1970)

chamber and instrumental
For 3--8 insts: Variations on a Viennese 'Heurigen' Melody, op.9, pf trio, 1914; 5 Intermezzi, op.10, str qt, 1914, also appeared as 4 Miniatures, op.10a; Pf Qt, op.13, c1914; Str Qt no.1, op.16, 1916; Pf Trio, op.18, 1923; Divertimento, op.22, 8 wind, 1924; Str Qt no.2, op.35, 1929; Serenade, op.41, str trio, 1931; Little Suite, op.49a, 2 vn, vc, pf ad lib, 1947--8; Trio, op.49b, pf trio (1949); Suite, op.59b, 3 mand (1956); Divertimento, op.68c, 2 rec, gui (1958); Quartettino, op.78, 4 rec (1960); Concertino, op.82, rec, str qt/str orch/pf, 1961; Trio Serenade, op.88, rec/fl, vn, vc (1967); Huyton Suite, op.92, fl, 2 vn, 1940; Serenade, op.93, cl, vn, vc, 1935; Trio, op.94, ob, vn, va, 1941; Str Qt no.3, op.95, 1969; Sonata, op.96, 2 vn, pf, 1941; Trio, op.97, cl, vn, pf, 1950; Str Qt no.4, op.98, 1971
For 2 insts: Suite, op.6, vc, pf, 1919; Sonata, op.17, vn, pf, 1920; Suite, op.56, vn, pf, 1942; Sonatina, op.59a, 2 mand (1952); Suite, op.68a, rec, vn, 1954--5; 6 2-part Inventions, op.68b, 2 rec (1958); 3 Sonatinas, op.71, vn, pf, 1956--7; Divertimento, op.80, mand, hp/pf (1961); Sonata, op.84, cl, pf (1965); Sonata, op.85, ob, pf (1965); Sonata, op.89, vc, pf, 1953; Divertimento, op.90/1, bn, vc, c1958; Divertimento, op.90/2, vn, vc (1968); Divertimento, op.90/3, vn, va, c1969; Sonata, op.101, va, pf, 1941

keyboard and songs
Pf: Serbische Weiser, op.3, 4 hands, 1916; 3 Sketches, op.7, 1910--11; Sonata, op.28, 1927; Tunes from Old Vienna, 1934; 24 Preludes, op.83, 1960
Org: Toccata, op.29, 1928
Songs: 2 Songs, op.21, S, b viol/vc, org, 1922; 3 Songs, op.33, Mez/Bar, pf, 1928

Principal publishers: Barenreiter, Breitkopf & Hartel, Novello, Schott, Simrock, Universal

The Golden Age of Vienna (London, 1948)
Johannes Brahms (Frankfurt, 1961; Eng. trans., 1964)
Richard Wagner (Frankfurt, 1963)
The Musician's World: Great Composers in their Letters (London, 1965; Ger. trans., 1966)
Franz Schubert, oder die Melodie (Frankfurt, 1970; Eng. trans., 1974)
Schumann Orchestral Music (London, 1979)
Giuseppe Verdi und die Oper (Frankfurt, 1982)

W. Waldstein: Hans Gal (Vienna, 1965)
E. Fox Gal and A. Fox: Hans Gal: ein Verzeichnis seiner Werke (York, 1985; Eng. trans., 1985)